Everything Is In the Wrong Place

Tuesday, March 25th, 2014

The problem with civilization, Scott Adams (Dilbert) says, is that our stuff is so often in the wrong place:

For example, it bugs me that I pay to heat my house . . . and then I put my refrigerator inside the heated house. That just feels wrong. I want my fridge to have an insulated conduit to the outdoors that senses temperatures and opens when the outdoors is sufficiently cold to help out. And let’s give that conduit a bug screen and an odor filter. This idea won’t happen soon because it requires the homebuilder and the refrigerator-maker to coordinate. I’ll put this idea on hold until I build my well-planned city of the future.

I recently blogged about the idea of consumers hosting computers in their homes and selling CPU time back to the grid. I got that idea about half right. A reader pointed me to a company that has a smarter take, so much so that I laughed out loud when I checked their website.

The company is Nerdalize, and their insight is that computers are also accidental heaters. With their business model you can heat your home for free in return for allowing a computer/heater in your home that is connected to the grid. This way data centers don’t need to spend vast amounts of money discarding excess heat that other people would happily pay for. It’s brilliant if it works. I’m going to add this idea to my city of the future too.

Twist Endings

Tuesday, March 25th, 2014

Twist endings are hard to do, George R.R. Martin finds:

I worked on the revived Twilight Zone in the mid-eighties, and the network was constantly on us, saying, “You have to have more twist endings!” And what we discovered is, it’s a lot harder to do a twist ending in 1987 than it is to do a twist ending in 1959. The audience has seen tens of thousands of more shows, and they’ve gotten far more sophisticated. We tried to remake some of the classic Twilight Zones, like Anne Francis is a mannequin coming into a store in the original, and we tried to remake that. Three minutes into it, they say, “She’s a mannequin.” Ha ha ha ha! Or the one where the woman has an operation. She’s supposedly hideously ugly and she’s having an operation to make her beautiful. But if you notice how they film that, you never see anyone’s face. You just see her with her bandages. And, of course, they take it off, and she’s incredibly beautiful, and everybody reacts with horror — and you see that they’re all idiot pig people! Well, the minute you remake that, the modern audience says, “They’re not showing us anyone’s faces.” So, trick endings are harder to do. The audience is increasingly sophisticated and wary of such things.

How Athletes Use Caffeine

Tuesday, March 25th, 2014

Athletes use caffeine strategically:

In 2009, Ganio and his colleagues published a systematic review of 21 studies on caffeine in timed performance. Most of the researchers looked at subjects cycling, but some also studied running, rowing, and cross-country skiing, and most of the tests were in the 15-minute to two-hour range. Looking across all the results, Ganio found consistent improvements in performance.

The improvements can be substantial, he told me, often as much as 3 percent. To put that into context, a 3 percent improvement would mean an 18-minute boost in a 10-hour race. Eighteen minutes was all that separated the top eight finishers in both the men’s and women’s pro races at Kona.


Ganio said it is important to take the right dose, which shakes out to about three to six milligrams per kilogram of body mass. That is a lot of caffeine. An 80-kilo (176-pound) athlete taking six milligrams per kilogram would need 480 milligrams of caffeine.

“That’s four strong cups of coffee,” said Ganio. “If you can tolerate it, it seems to be the upper end of what you can have to improve performance.”

Since “cups of coffee” is a notoriously imprecise measure of caffeine, it may help to think of it this way: 480 milligrams would be six 8-ounce Red Bulls, two and a half NoDoz tablets, or two Extra Strength 5-hour Energy shots. A more moderate dose for a smaller athlete, say, a 65-kilo (143-pound) athlete taking three milligrams per kilo, is still an impressive amount of caffeine: equal to one NoDoz tablet, one 5-hour Energy shot, or two and a half Red Bulls. Even this amount of caffeine is difficult to obtain using caffeinated sodas like Coca-Cola. A 65-kilo athlete would need to chug nearly six cans of Coke at once to get a caffeine dose of three milligrams per kilogram.

Also, researchers found no evidence of dehydration from using caffeine.

Is Learning a Foreign Language Really Worth It?

Monday, March 24th, 2014

Is learning a foreign language really worth it?

Dubner: Saiz is from Barcelona — Barthelona — and he’s an economist at MIT, where he teaches urban planning. On today’s show we’re asking about the return on investment of learning a foreign language and, wouldn’t you know it, Saiz has calculated exactly that. He tracked about 9,000 college graduates to see how a foreign language affected their wages.He was surprised by what he found.

Saiz: Yeah, unfortunately, and I have to say, of course, because I try to speak three, I was pretty disappointed, and actually we found a very, very small return. What we did find is that after controlling for a host of characteristics, and using, a lot of experimental research designs that are basically trying to compare people who are identical for everything except for the second language, we did tend to find a premium in the labor market of about 2 percent of wages. In other words, if you speak a second language, you can expect to earn, on average, and that’s across many, many different people, on average you can be expected to earn about 2 percent higher wages. To contextualize this, think about your income or your wage being about $30,000, then you would expect to earn about $600 more per year.

Dubner: Now that’s not nothing. There are a lot of things you can do that won’t increase your earnings by even 2 percent. But still, that’s not a huge premium. And, I hate to tell this to our young Spanish speakers back at the Little Red School House in New York, but there is a rank order in terms of how different foreign languages translate into higher earnings.

Saiz: We know that the lowest return is Spanish, where you get about 1.5 percent, and then French 2.7 percent, and then German 4 percent. So you know learning a second language is something that’s worth to do by itself, but as a financial decision, probably, if you’re focusing on financial returns, they’re relatively low, and you should focus on languages that are rarely spoken in the United States.


Dubner: So as Bryan Caplan sees it, learning a foreign language, especially in school, just may not be worth it. Unless — that foreign language is English. Remember what Albert Saiz told us? His study of college graduates found only a 2 percent wage premium for learning a foreign language. But those were American college graduates:

Saiz: I can tell you that there’s research in other countries. Actually the findings in the United States do contrast with what other people following the same methodology found in Turkey, in Russia and in Israel. In these three countries, actually speaking English, which would be the second language, was associated with a substantial return of around 10 to 20 percent. So it’s really I think English speaking countries where that effect is relatively low. And again I think the explanation is very clear. English is the lingua franca.

Borrowed from Tolkien

Monday, March 24th, 2014

George R.R. Martin discusses something he borrowed from Tolkien in writing A Game of Thrones, in terms of the initial structure of the book:

If you look at Lord of the Rings, everything begins in the Shire with Bilbo’s birthday party. You have a very small focus. You have a map of the Shire right in the beginning of the book – you think it’s the entire world. And then they get outside it. They cross the Shire, which seems epic in itself. And then the world keeps getting bigger and bigger and bigger. And then they add more and more characters, and then those characters split up. I essentially looked at the master there and adopted the same structure. Everything in A Game of Thrones begins in Winterfell. Everybody is together there and then you meet more people and, ultimately, they’re split apart and they go in different directions. But the one departure from that, right from the first, was Daenerys, who was always separate. It’s almost as if Tolkien, in addition to having Bilbo, had thrown in an occasional Faramir chapter, right from the beginning of the book.

Medically and Psychologically Ruinous

Monday, March 24th, 2014

Working as a police officer is medically and psychologically ruinous:

When he was starting out, Brian says he wasn’t warned of how the career could do such damage. In 2012, an unprecedented study of 464 police officers, published in the International Journal of Emergency Mental Health linked officers’ stress with increased levels of sleep disorders, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, brain cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and suicide.

Other studies have found that between 7 and 19 percent of active duty police have PTSD, while MRIs of police officers’ brains have found a connection between experiencing trauma and a reduction in areas that play roles in emotional and cognitive decision-making, memory, fear, and stress regulation.

In squad rooms full of cops, Brian would compare blood pressure meds with his colleagues. Most, if not all, of the police he knew with more than 10 years of service were dealing some kind of medical or psychological issue.

At night, Brian would hide his drinking from his wife. He went from sipping whiskey, to downing cheap 100-proof vodka.

“You see nothing but bodies, I swear, dead people,” he said. “Car accidents, hangings, suicides, murders, SIDS deaths.” He remembered a diabetic who killed himself by overdosing on chocolate. And then there was the conversation with a tongue-pierced meth user with an enlarged heart who had told Brian, “I’m white trash until the day I die.” He assaulted people in a parking lot and died in custody after deputies restrained him. The next day, Brian found himself close to fainting after viewing the autopsy photos of the same kid’s esophagus, and pierced tongue.

“I was so angry at this one woman for dying, that I yelled at her,” he said. “I just didn’t want to see another dead body…I should have recognized at that point, it’s time for me to back up.”

Too Little Tactical Technique

Sunday, March 23rd, 2014

H.J. Poole suggests that our Marines use too little tactical technique:

Asian infantrymen secretly cross battlefields, need supporting arms only as a deception, and exfiltrate any encirclement. Did not 10 Chinese divisions reach the Chosin Reservoir undetected in 1950, and an NVA division exfiltrate the Hue City Citadel in 1968? That takes troops with both conventional- and unconventional-warfare skills. Through hit and run, they engage 10 times their number. Their training involves collective thinking and field experimentation. Their days are spent in battledrill competition and free play.

Meanwhile, U.S. infantrymen seek a 3 to 1 edge. Their “Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs)” are canned, what their organization has theoretically learned about short-range combat, and what the new lieutenant expects his platoon to already know.

U.S. shooting procedures are excellent. Only missing are ways to exercise discreet force at close range. American movement methods are less comprehensive. Those for walking point, stalking, tracking, and short-range infiltration are virtually nonexistent. Microterrain appreciation, night familiarity, and movement obscurity are not abilities to which high-tech, motorized “heavy infantry” aspire. Their backup communication means could usefully be silent and devoid of motion signature.

In the U.S. assault, all elements move forward on line firing their weapons at maximum sustained rate. For the squad and center fire team, the “guide” is toward the center. For the flank fire teams, the guide is toward the side closest to the center. Individual riflemen maintain some spacing, remain upright, and elevate their weapons. While none of these procedures seem worthy of rehearsal, several are. Infantrymen who do not regularly pick lanes while moving forward converge toward the center and commit fratricide. Those who do not practice in vegetation can’t guide toward center or flank.

The problem is how U.S. troops are trained. From the time they memorize their general orders, they “live and die” by the book. Whether the book is well written is not at issue. They (and their instructors) believe it to be their doctrinal edict. Most tactics manuals were never intended to be strictly followed. They contain guidelines to be situationally adapted. As control over enlisted training is centralized, this “live-by-the-book” syndrome is exacerbated. The cost is initiative.

To generate enough initiative to practice maneuver warfare, Eastern armies decentralize control. They have more “basics.” Our triad of “shoot,” “move,” and “communicate” is only sufficient for attrition warfare. Their list includes “sensory awareness,” “passive defense,” and “individual deception.” Their nonrates have procedures with which to better do the following: (1) see, hear, smell, taste, and feel; (2) take cover, hide, and escape; and (3) deceive an adversary. They enhance peripheral vision through defocusing on a finger. They crawl, dig spider holes, and double back on their own tracks. Some mimic a cat after disturbing a can.

To surprise a defender, Asians use “stormtrooper” technique. In 1918, the Germans blew their bangalore (during precision artillery) and assaulted (with bayonets and concussion grenades) when the artillery shifted. The NVA followed 82mm mortars with satchel charges, and 61mm mortars with thin-skinned “potato mashers.” If the nine-man NVA squad got through the wire undetected, it stayed in column with RPG man in the lead. He could shoot (and his companions drop fragmentation grenades into bunker apertures) without compromising the indirect-fire deception. If the squad was fired upon, its riflemen could shoot to the side and downward without endangering each other or sister squads. Where it met light resistance coming through the wire, the first of its three-man “cells” deployed on line inside the breach.8 When the whole squad assaulted on line, the light machinegunner carried his RPD by the handle, and AK-47 men fired in the semi-automatic mode. Everyone maintained yards of interval, trotted, and shot from the waist or “combat-glide” stance. Unlike the Marine assault, each composite technique had surprise as its goal.

For every category of enemy encounter, U.S. infantrymen can no longer reenact the single, outdated, and predictable procedure in their manuals. They must display initiative while running the most situationally consistent of several locally developed, updated, and practiced “tactical techniques.” For an American rifle company to hold its own at short range against an Eastern counterpart, its training of the squad and below must be experimentally driven from the bottom up instead of doctrinally driven from the top down. Each company’s NCOs must be allowed to collectively identify and fix their own deficiencies. Their techniques will improve as long as the simulated casualties and surprise indicators (speed, stealth, deception) are statistically tracked.

Marines are taught to instantly assault any ambush less than 50 yards away. Unless the threat is within feet, Eastern soldiers drop to the ground and crawl away.

An internet circle carried a piece about Fallujah. Purportedly written by a Sgt., Cpl., and two L.Cpls., it proposed: (1) breaking every serious contact to permit supporting arms, (2) frontally assaulting buildings from the bottom up to facilitate casualty removal, and (3) staying in a tight “stack.” The Marines’ accomplishments are noteworthy, and their lessons refreshing, but the state of the art in urban assault remains the “blooming lotus,” or inside-out approach. It was applied to cities in Hue and Saigon, and to a building in the Peruvian hostage rescue. It favors the traditional “top-down” assault in which dispersion is allowed and withdrawal discouraged.

To fully realize the significance of tactical technique, one must go back to his days as a hunter, Basic School student, or football player. What Marines lack is surprise-oriented individual and small-unit movement memory. Their “IA” drills unnecessarily expose them and telegraph intentions. So, instead of reacting instinctively, they must stop to confer and do the unrehearsed. The foe is now ready, and the Marines get their feet (and assignments) tangled up.

A better way to train enlisted Marines has been substantiated by several battalions. It requires each company’s NCOs to collectively arrive at three ways to handle each category of combat situation, and to all practice them. When the enemy appears, every squad element has three tactical options instead of the predictable standard. One must only have 20 or more NCOs, get three-fourths to agree, and test their solution against “three-second sight pictures.” Squad PT provides rehearsal. With rubber rifles, troops run Indian file until a “battledrill” is directed. As the terrain and drills vary, the squad becomes more accomplished.

The Real Iron Throne

Saturday, March 22nd, 2014

There is no real Iron Throne, George R.R. Martin admits — but there is a depiction of the fictional throne that is more true to his imagination than the HBO show’s prop:

The HBO throne has become iconic. And well it might. It’s a terrific design, and it has served the show very well. There are replicas and paperweights of it in three different sizes. Everyone knows it. I love it. I have all those replicas right here, sitting on my shelves.

And yet, and yet… it’s still not right. It’s not the Iron Throne I see when I’m working on THE WINDS OF WINTER. It’s not the Iron Throne I want my readers to see. The way the throne is described in the books… HUGE, hulking, black and twisted, with the steep iron stairs in front, the high seat from which the king looks DOWN on everyone in the court… my throne is a hunched beast looming over the throne room, ugly and asymmetric…

The HBO throne is none of those things. It’s big, yes, but not nearly as big as the one described in the novels. And for good reason. We have a huge throne room set in Belfast, but not nearly huge enough to hold the Iron Throne as I painted it. For that we’d need something much bigger, more like the interior of St. Paul’s Cathedral or Westminster Abbey, and no set has that much room. The Book Version of the Iron Throne would not even fit through the doors of the Paint Hall.

So what does the Real Iron Throne look like, you ask? Glad you asked. It looks kind of like this:

Iron Throne by Marc Simonetti

That’s the Iron Throne as painted by the amazing Marc Simonetti (and if you haven’t gotten his 2013 Ice & Fire calendar, better hurry, the year’s half over) for the upcoming concordance, THE WORLD OF ICE & FIRE. It’s a rough, not a final version, so what you see in the book will be more polished. But Marc has come closer here to capturing the Iron Throne as I picture it than any other artist to tackle it. From now on, THIS will be the reference I give to every other artist tackling a throne room scene. This Iron Throne is massive. Ugly. Assymetric. It’s a throne made by blacksmiths hammering together half-melted, broken, twisted swords, wrenched from the hands of dead men or yielded up by defeated foes… a symbol of conquest… it has the steps I describe, and the height. From on top, the king dominates the throne room. And there are thousands of swords in it, not just a few.

This Iron Throne is scary. And not at all a comfortable seat, just as Aegon intended.

FSB Alpha Team Confidence Drills

Friday, March 21st, 2014

Americans have Delta Group. Russians have Alpha Group. In Alpha Group, they take their confidence drills to another level:

Critical but Creative Thinking

Friday, March 21st, 2014

The government has started using strategy board games much more often — not to predict outcomes, but to foster the critical but creative thinking needed to win (or avoid) a complex battle or campaign:

Some games are for official use only. The Centre for Naval Analyses (CNA), a federally funded defence outfit, has created half a dozen new ones in the past two years. Most were designed by CNA analysts, but commercial designers occasionally lend a hand, as they did for Sand Wars, a game set in north-west Africa.

CNA games address trouble in all kinds of places. In Transition and Tumult, designed for the marine corps, players representing groups in Sudan and South Sudan try to whip up or quell local unrest that might lead American forces to intervene. In The Operational Wraparound, made for the army, players struggle to stoke or defeat a Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan. Avian Influenza Exercise Tool, a game designed for the Department of Agriculture, shows health officials how not to mishandle a bird-flu epidemic.

Board games designed for the government typically begin as unclassified. Their “system”, however, becomes classified once players with security clearances begin to incorporate sensitive intelligence into it, says Peter Perla, a game expert at CNA. If an air-force player knows that, say, a secret bunker-busting bomb is now operational, he can improve the dice-roll odds that a sortie will destroy an underground weapons lab. During official gaming sessions, analysts peer over players’ shoulders and challenge their reasoning. Afterwards, they incorporate the insights gleaned into briefings for superiors.

One reason why board games are useful is that you can constantly tweak the rules to take account of new insights, says Timothy Wilkie of the National Defence University in Washington, DC. With computer games, this is much harder. Board games can also illuminate the most complex conflicts. Volko Ruhnke, a CIA analyst, has designed a series of games about counterinsurgency. For example, Labyrinth: The War on Terror, 2001-? (sold by GMT Games of California) models “parallel wars of bombs and ideas”, as one reviewer puts it, on a board depicting much of Eurasia and Africa.

Even training for combat itself can be helped with dice and cards. Harpoon, a game about naval warfare, has proved so accurate in the past that hundreds of Pentagon officials will play it when the next version comes out in a couple of years, says Mr Patch. One of its designers, Chris Carlson, is also responsible for the “kinetic” aspects of Persian Incursion (ie, the bits that involve shooting). Mr Carlson is a former Defence Intelligence Agency analyst; Persian Incursion’s data on the nuts and bolts of assembling and commanding bomber, escort, and refuelling aircraft “strike packages” for destroying Iran’s nuclear sites is so precise that on at least two occasions intelligence officials have suggested that he is breaking the law by publishing it.

Robots Stand Guard

Friday, March 21st, 2014

The USMC airbase at Twentynine Palms recently became the latest DoD facility to be guarded by robots:

The marines were encouraged by the fact that, since 2011, even a nuclear materials storage site out in the Nevada desert was guarded this way, decided to join in. Slowly, but inevitably, mobile robots (UGVs, or unmanned ground vehicles) are taking over guard duty. It’s become increasingly common for American high-value military bases to be patrolled by four wheeled, 1.6 ton MDARS robotic vehicles. With a top speed of 32 kilometers an hour and able to operate 16 hours without refueling, the vehicle contains radar (LIDAR) and 3-D visual sensors that enable it to avoid obstacles and identify whatever it encounters. One MDARS vehicle costing about $800,000 (depending on sensors installed) can do the work at half the cost of previous, non-mobile security systems. MDARS sensors and software can identify a variety of local animals (usually coyotes, deer or dogs) and birds it is likely to encounter within a rural facility. When it detects an unauthorized human, it alerts its human controller, who checks the real-time video feed and takes action. Current MDARS sensors can identify individuals 200 meters away. MDARS is unarmed, although it could easily be equipped with weapons. In the U.S. potential legal, media and political problems discourage this. But there’s much less opposition to unarmed vehicles. As sensors and autonomous driving technology keeps improving so does the effectiveness, value and acceptability of these vehicles.

Michelangelo’s David Wasn’t an Underwear Model

Thursday, March 20th, 2014

Michelangelo's DavidItalian authorities are indignant that ArmaLite’s ad campaign depicts Michelangelo’s David holding one of its rifles — but they’re not indignant about many other depictions of the iconic statue:

This moral posturing is clearly about something other than respect for the sculpture’s “aesthetic value” or “cultural dignity.” Otherwise, officials would crack down on the David boxer shorts sold by countless Florentine vendors.

Depicting David as armed shouldn’t be the least bit shocking:

ArmaLite’s ads broke the unwritten rules. Instead of highlighting the hero’s body, they emphatically made him a warrior. Hence Franceschini’s objection to an “armed David,” even though every David is armed. “David famously used a slingshot to defeat the giant Goliath, making the gun imagery, thought up by the Illinois-based ArmaLite, even more inappropriate,” writes Emma Hall in Ad Age.

To the contrary, the gun imagery, while incongruously machine-age, was utterly appropriate. David did not use a “slingshot.” He used a sling. As historians of ancient warfare — and readers of Malcolm Gladwell’s latest book, “David and Goliath” — know, a sling was no child’s toy. It was a powerful projectile weapon, a biblical equivalent of ArmaLite’s wares.

Nor did Florentine patrons commission statues of David because he looked good without his clothes. They commissioned statues of David because he was a martial hero who had felled an intimidating foe. They made him a beautiful nude to emphasize his heroism, not to disguise his bloody deed. (Donatello’s David has his boot triumphantly on Goliath’s severed head.) Michelangelo’s giant was meant as an inspiration to locals and a warning to would-be invaders. He wasn’t an underwear model. He was a Minuteman.

Shaking Up the Classroom

Thursday, March 20th, 2014

The 4,100-pupil Lindsay Unified School District at the base of the Sierra Nevada mountain range is shaking up the classroom by scrapping age-based grade levels and focusing on mastery of the material. Shocking, I know:

Called competency-based learning, it is based on the idea that students learn at their own pace and should earn credits and advance after they master the material — not just because they have spent a year in a certain class.


In Lindsay, which sits among lush citrus orchards, many students come from poor families who pick or sort fruit. About 95% of the pupils are Latino, and 100% qualify for free lunch.

Lindsay’s move is showing some success. The district has seen its pass rates on state exams rise since competency-based teaching began in 2009. In reading, 34% of students passed the exams last year, up from 25% in 2009. Pass rates for math rose to 32% from 28%, while those for science jumped to 41% from 27%.

The district still scores below California averages on all the exams, but is improving faster than the statewide average on most of them. Lindsay’s score in the state Academic Performance Index, based on tests, jumped to 691 last year from 644 in 2009. The 47-point gain compares with an average 35-point rise statewide.

Meanwhile, suspension rates dropped by 41% and high-school students claiming gang membership fell by half to about 4%, district officials said.

I suppose the real problem comes when the middle-class schools are allowed to unleash their kids, and the gap widens.

Female Helicopter Pilots

Thursday, March 20th, 2014

U.S. Army Aviation has come to agree with civilian insurance companies that women are safer drivers:

While ten percent of army helicopter pilots are women, only three percent of helicopter accidents occur when a woman is the pilot.

I don’t know if male and female helicopter pilots are assigned the same tasks.

Ola Lee Mize

Wednesday, March 19th, 2014

Ola Lee Mize recently passed away. He earned the Medal of Honor in Korea:

Here’s how his citation describes his actions on June 10, 1953:

M/Sgt. Mize, a member of Company K, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. Company K was committed to the defense of “Outpost Harry”, a strategically valuable position, when the enemy launched a heavy attack. Learning that a comrade on a friendly listening post had been wounded he moved through the intense barrage, accompanied by a medical aid man, and rescued the wounded soldier. On returning to the main position he established an effective defense system and inflicted heavy casualties against attacks from determined enemy assault forces which had penetrated into trenches within the outpost area. During his fearless actions he was blown down by artillery and grenade blasts 3 times but each time he dauntlessly returned to his position, tenaciously fighting and successfully repelling hostile attacks. When enemy onslaughts ceased he took his few men and moved from bunker to bunker, firing through apertures and throwing grenades at the foe, neutralizing their positions. When an enemy soldier stepped out behind a comrade, prepared to fire, M/Sgt. Mize killed him, saving the life of his fellow soldier. After rejoining the platoon, moving from man to man, distributing ammunition, and shouting words of encouragement he observed a friendly machine gun position overrun. He immediately fought his way to the position, killing 10 of the enemy and dispersing the remainder. Fighting back to the command post, and finding several friendly wounded there, he took a position to protect them. Later, securing a radio, he directed friendly artillery fire upon the attacking enemy’s routes of approach. At dawn he helped regroup for a counterattack which successfully drove the enemy from the outpost. M/Sgt. Mize’s valorous conduct and unflinching courage reflect lasting glory upon himself and uphold the noble traditions of the military service.

(Hat tip to Weapons Man.)