Historian Paul Kramer revisits the Philippine-American War and finds some “eerie similarities” with the current war in Iraq:
- A conventional invasion and speedy victory followed by an unexpected, protracted nonconventional insurgency.
- Violations of human rights norms by the occupying Americans.
- Repeated claims that the war was justified by and fought on behalf of higher principles of “civilization” or “freedom.”
- Declarations that the war was over in hopes of ending domestic controversy about it.
- The sense that it was America’s right, duty and obligation to engage in nationbuilding and installing “democracy,” of which the United States was considered an unblemished example.